Sectarian violence during the 2002 Gujarat riots damaged relations between the US government and Narendra Modi, then Prime Minister of Gujarat. Human rights defenders have accused Modi of promoting anti-Muslim violence. In its 2002 report, the New York-based NGO Human Rights Watch directly implicated Gujarat officials in violence against Muslims.  The Logistics Exchange Agreement Memorandum (LEMOA), an optimized version of the Logistics Support Agreement (LSA), was the first “founding agreement” signed by India and the United States. The military agreement was signed during the third round of the 2-2 ministerial dialogue and paves the way for a comprehensive and close partnership between India and the United States. The United States has four “basic” agreements that it signs with its defence partners. The Pentagon describes the agreements as “routine instruments used by the United States to promote military cooperation with partner countries.” U.S. officials said the agreements are not preconditions for bilateral defence cooperation, but that it would be easier and cheaper to carry out activities such as refueling aircraft or ships in other countries and providing disaster relief.  The first of the four agreements, the General Security of Military Information Agreement (GSOMIA), was signed in 2002 by India and the United States. The agreement allows the exchange of military information between the two countries and obliges each country to protect the secret information of others. The second agreement, the Logistics Exchange Agreement (LEMOA), was signed by the two countries on 29 August 2016. LEMOA allows the military of both countries to use the bases of other countries for post-delivery deliveries or repairs.
The agreement does not require the provision of logistical support to either country and requires individual authorisation for each application.  The third agreement, the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA), was signed as part of the first 2-2 dialogue in September 2018.  This is a specific variant of the Memorandum of Understanding (CISMOA) on communications and information security, which allows the two countries to exchange communications and exchange of information on equipment authorized during bilateral and multinational exercises and training operations. The fourth agreement, the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) signed in 2020, allows the exchange of unclassified and controlled geospatial products, topographic, nautical and aeronautical data, products and services between India and the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA).  During the George W. Bush administration, relations between India and the United States flourished, in part because of common concerns about the rise of Islamic extremism, energy security and climate change.  George W. Bush commented, “India is an excellent example of democracy. It is very pious, has different religious heads, but everyone feels good about their religion. The world needs India.  Fareed Zakaria described George W. Bush in his book The Post-American World as “the pro-Indian president in American history.”  Rejaul Karim Laskar, an Indian foreign policy scholar and ideologue of the Indian Congress party, the largest voter in the UPA, reflects similar sentiments.
According to Laskar, the UPA rule has undergone a “transformation of bilateral relations with the United States,” allowing relations “to cover a wide range of topics, including high technology, space, education, agriculture, trade, clean energy, counter-terrorism, etc.”  LEMOA is very useful for cooperation between the Indian and American navies, as the two countries work closely in the Indo-Pacific space. To put the usefulness of this agreement in simple terms, it is like being able to stop in a friend`s garage or workshop to refuel your car or have it repaired if you are away from your own home or workshop.